Winter School in Cusco


Cusco, August 1-13, 1994

This was the First International School of High Energy Physics (HEP) held in Peru. The main objective of this initiative was to promote HEP in Peru and Latin America. The School was held in the ancient city of Cusco from August 1 to 13, 1994 and was organized by the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia (UPCH) in collaboration with the National University San Antonio Abad del Cusco (UNSAAC) and other Peruvian institutions.

Special thanks to Prof. H. Barrientos (UNSAAC) for the great support he offered for the realization of this school. A great affectionate thanks to M. Sheaff (University of Wisconsin), without her this school could not have been done. Many thanks to Prof. Carlo Rubbia (CERN, Physics Nobel Prize 1984) for coming to Peru for the first time and thank you very much for the years (6 years) that I was part of his team at CERN on the Energy Amplifier project. A big thank you to J. A. Rubio (CERN) for all the support he gave me at CERN for the school to succeed. Thanks to the former Rector of the UAM, Prof. C. Lopez, a great friend. Thanks to Prof. G. Violini (CIF), who has always forged Science in Latin America, thanks to him I went to work at CERN. Thanks to all my friends at CERN who were present at the school and gave their full support. Thanks to J. Castromonte (UPCH) for the organisation of this event.

Previously the web site this event was on my CERN website and I have noticed that students from all over the world, in particular the theoreticians, have downloaded about 1000 times the course of the Standard Model offered by Prof. Masperi from Bariloche. I believe that this was an excellent contribution to this event and for that reason I have decided again to make it available to the academic and scientific community.


C. Aguirre (La Paz), C. López (UAM), A. Santoro (CBPF), D. Amati (SISSA), B. Maréchal (UFRJ), F. Sauli (CERN), A. De Rújula (CERN), J. Moromisato (Boston), A. Sharma (INFN), G. Charpak (CERN), A. Morsch (CERN), M. Sheaff (Fermilab), J. Dos Anjos (CBPF), R. Muñoz (Santiago), A. Sisakian (Dubna), L. Foa (CERN), M. Perl (SLAC), S. Ting (MIT), C. García (La Plata), C. Rubbia (CERN), E. Ugaz (Orlando), J. Kirkby (CERN), R. Rubinstein (Fermilab), A. Zepeda (CINVESTAV), L. Lederman (Fermilab), J. A. Rubio(CERN), A. Zichichi (CERN-WL), C. Leroy (Montreal)


H. Barrientos (UNSAAC) , V. Latorre (UNI), H. Sánchez (UNI), A. Castillo (UPCH), L. Montestruque (PUCP),  J. Castromonte (UPCH, Chairman), M. Montoya (UNI), J. Sotelo (UPCH), J. Gálvez (CERN), O. Pereyra (UNI), J. Vásquez (UNI), E. Gamarra, J. Salas


Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear (IPEN), Sociedad Peruana de Física (SOPERFI), Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad del Cusco (UNSAAC), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)


Centro Internacional de Física (CIF), Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONCYTEC),  European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Fermi National Laboratory (FERMILAB), ICSC – World Laboratory (WL),  Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare (INFN), International Center for Particle Physics (ICTP),  National Science Foundation (NSF),  Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo (UNPRG), Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI)


The school gave courses and lectures on theoretical and experimental HEP and a practical introduction to the detector physics. It included three special laboratory sessions, one dedicated to Multiwire proportional chambers, the other to the implementation of Monte Carlo PC application packages from the CERN Program Library and the last one dedicated to signal processing.



Sequence of lectures providing the basics in physics research and their associated techniques.

1.- Theoretical Physics:

Phenomenology of Particle Physics (PPP), (6 h), J. SALICIO – CERN, August, 1- 6. A brief history, theoretical framework, family structure and forces, symmetries, the cosmological connection, open questions and outlook.

The Standard Model (SM) (6 h), L. MASPERI – Bariloche, August, 8 -13. Electroweak and strong interactions, Feynman diagrams. Weak interactions, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Glashow Weinberg Salam model, neutral and charged currents, deep inelastic scattering, asymmetry, parity violation, radiative corrections, QCD, Z physics.

Cosmic Ray Physics (CRP) (2 h), C. AGUIRRE – Bolivia, August, 10 – 11. Introduction to Cosmic Rays Physics. Experiments at Chacaltaya Laboratory.

2.- Experimental Physics:

Accelerators Physics (AP) (6 h), A. MORSCH (CERN), August, 1 – 6. History of high energy physics accelerators, architecture of high energy physics accelerators, beam dynamics, synchrotron radiation, beam stability, future colliders and cosmic accelerators.

Underground and Cosmic Ray experiments.

3.- Experimental Techniques

Detector Physics (DP) (6 h), M. SCHIOPPA (Univ. de Calabria), August 8 – 13. These lectures will introduce the principles of some major types of particle detectors, describe a few examples from current experiments, and will review the principles used for triggering and reading out a High Energy Physics experiment (one lecture will be devoted to triggering, another to the Data Acquisition System and the last one to the control of the experiment).

Monte Carlo Simulation for HEP (MSC) (3 h), F. ANSELMO, M. MARINO, G. LA COMMARE-CERN (to be confirmed), August, 1 – 3. Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods and applications to event generators for HEP.

Introduction to Gaseous Detector Physics (IGDP) (4 h) J. MOROMISATO – Northeastern University, August, 4 – 5 and 8 – 9. These lectures will introduce the principles of gaseous detector chambers.

Signal Preocessing (SP) L. CALOBA, J.M. SEIXAS – UFRJ

Laboratory Work

Selected basic experimental techniques on high energy particles detection, signal processing and installation and use of packages of the main CERN Program Library adapted for PCs.

Monte Carlo Applications using PC with CERN Software (10 h), V. IVANOV – JINR – Dubna, August, 1 – 5. This Laboratory Work will implement CERN software on PCs under MS DOS and use it on some Monte Carlo applications for High Energy Physics.

Detector Physics Instrumentation (DPI) (10 h), C. WILLIAMS – CERN, August, 8 – 12. This Laboratory Work will introduce general aspects of the Multiwire proportional chambers.

Signal Processing (SP) (4 h), L. CALOBA, J.M. SEIXAS – UFRJ, August, 4 – 5 and 8 – 9. This Laboratory Work will introduce fast signal processing techniques. Pulse measurements, filtering and shaping circuits and neural networks, applications for triggering are going to be covered.

Seminars & Conferences

Specialized topics, whose level assumes basic knowledge of theoretical concepts and experimental techniques provided by: Sheaff M. (USA), Chen H. (China), Leroy C (Canada), Lopez C. (Spain), Violini G. (Italy), Rubbia C. (Italy), Marechal B. (Brasil)

Round Tables

1. Discussions on the initiatives towards the creation of a Physics Research Center in Peru.
2. High Energy Physics in Latin – America, particularly in Peru and prospects for collaboration with CERN, other European Laboratories, Canada and U.S.A. Laboratories.


The city of Cusco is considered the archaeological capital of America. It is located at latitude 13o 18′ S, and 3450 m above sea level and at 1133 km from the capital Lima.

Its weather is mild and dry and its average temperature is of 18°C during the day falling to between 10°C and 12°C at night. In Quechua, the Inca language, the word Cusco means “navel” and Cusco is indeed the navel or heart of South America, the centre of the great Inca civilization. The city was founded around the year 1200, and reached its era of splendour during the first half of the 15th century when Pachacutec reigned over the Incas. The Spaniards conquered the city in 1553, and stayed there for more than three centuries. Thus, in Cusco two cultures merged, shaping in the process the spirit of modern Peru. From that mixture of races and traditions were born the most important schools of art in Peru and the ancient University of San Antonio Abad.

Near Cusco is the Sacred Valley of the Incas where is laying some of the priceless treasures of Peruvian archaeology: Machu Picchu, Sacsayhuaman, Ollantaytambo and Pisac. For its magnificence the great Inca sanctuary of Machu Picchu stands out in this group. It is built above the granite canyon of Urubamba, in the first outposts of the Amazon rain forest, and it is surrounded by walls more than a metre thick. There, the sun, the moon, clouds and stars were worshipped. One of its principal attractions is the mystery of its origin and the secret nature of its history.